Magadha was amongst one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas or great countries as referred to in ancient India. The prime region of the kingdom was situated in the area of Bihar south of the Ganges with its capital Rajagaha. Magadha extended to encompass Eastern Uttar Pradesh, major part of Bihar, and Bengal with the occupation of Licchavi and Anga correspondingly. The ancient territory of Magadha finds mention in the epics such as Ramayana, Mahabharata, as well as Puranas. Even the Buddhist and Jain texts have accounted it exhaustively.
The first reference to the Magadha people can be found in the Atharva-Veda. In fact, Magadha has been a birth place for India’s two popular religions as well as two greatest empires. These empires in the Magadha region would include the Maurya and Gupta Empire that saw advancements in various fields.