The earliest literary traditions of India were passed down orally, and there is an absence of text. However, these were orally transmitted and have been passed down as such. Later on, they were transcribed. Vedas, Ramayana, Mahabharata, Sangam literature comprise the rich ancient literature of India.
Throughout the period of the Delhi Sultanate as well as the Mughal era, saw the development of Persian language that showed the work talent of famous poets inclusive of Amir Khusro. In the era of English colonial rule, modern literature was further demonstrated by the works of scholars such as Rabindranath Tagore, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, Subramania Barathi, Munshi Premchand, as well as Muhammad Iqbal. Even in the contemporary India, there are several writers such as Girish Karnad, Amrita Pritam, Arundhati Roy, Agyeya, Nirmal Verma, Kamleshwar, Vaikom and even Qurratulain Hyder.